According to section 58 of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), all new enterprises and projects must undergo an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The Act further requires that, any person being a proponent of a project, shall, before financing, commencing, proceeding with, carrying out, executing or conducting or causing to be financed, commenced with, carried out, executed or conducted by another person any undertaking specified in Second Schedule to EMCA shall undertake or cause to be undertaken at his own expense an Environmental Impact Assessment study and prepare a report thereof for consideration by National Environment Management Authority, NEMA. The ESIA study report shall be submitted to the Authority in the prescribed form, giving the prescribed information and shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee.
EIA Study Reports must contain at least the following information:
- Objective of the project
- Description of the project site
- Identification and description of potential significant adverse environmental impacts and safety risks of the project
- Propose mitigation measures for the potential significant adverse environmental impacts and safety risks
- Recommendations and conclusions.
The contents of the Second Schedule of the Act on the projects to undergo EIA are:
- General: an activity out of character with its surroundings; any structure of a scale not in keeping with its surrounding; major changes in land use
- Urban Development including: Housing developments (more than four units), designation of new townships; establishment or expansion of recreational townships in mountain areas, national parks and game reserves; shopping centres and complexes
- Transportation including: major roads; all roads in scenic, wooded or mountainous areas and wetlands; railway lines, airports and airfields; oil and gas pipelines; water transport
- Dams, rivers and water resources including: storage dams, barrages and piers; river diversions and water transfer between catchments; flood control schemes; drilling for the purpose of utilising ground water resources including geothermal energy
- Aerial spraying
- Mining, including quarrying and open-cast extraction of precious metals; gemstones; metalliferrous ores; coal; phosphates; limestone and dolomite; stone and slate; aggregates, sand and gravel; clay, exploration for the production of petroleum in any form; extracting alluvial gold with use of mercury
- Forestry related activities including timber harvesting; clearance of forest areas; reforestation and afforestation
- Agriculture including; large-scale agriculture; use of pesticides; introduction of new crops and animals; use of fertilizers; irrigation
- Processing and manufacturing industries including; mineral processing; reduction of ores and minerals; smelting and refining of ores and minerals; foundries, brick and earthward manufacture; cement works and lime processing; glass works; fertilizer manufacture or processing; explosive plants; oil refineries and petro-chemical works; tanning and dressing of hides and skins; abattoirs and meat-processing plants; chemical works and process plants; brewing and malting; bulk grain processing plants; fish-processing plants; pulp and paper mills; food-processing vehicles; plants for the construction or repair of aircraft or railway equipment; plants for the manufacture or assembly of motor vehicles; plants for the manufacture of tanks, reservoirs and sheet-metal containers; plants for the manufacture of coal briquettes; plant for manufacturing batteries
- Electrical infrastructure including; electricity generation stations; electrical transmission lines; electrical substations; pumped-storage schemes
- Management of hydrocarbons including; the storage of natural gas and combustible or explosive fuels
- Health facilities including; hospitals, clinics
- Waste disposal including; sites for solid waste disposal; sites for hazardous waste disposal; sewage disposal works; works involving major atmospheric emissions; works emitting offensive odours
- Natural conservation areas including; creation of national parks, game reserves and buffer zones; establishment of wilderness areas; formulation or modification of forest management policies; formulation or modification of water catchment’s management policies; policies for the management of ecosystems, especially by use of fire; commercial exploitation of natural fauna and flora; introduction of alien species of fauna and flora into ecosystems
- Nuclear Reactors
- Major developments in biotechnology including the introduction and testing of genetically modified organisms.
The company targets proponents and lead agencies of such projects as above to conduct Environmental Impact Assessments for them.